Bauhaus School and Scandinavian Design

Bauhaus School and its Influence on Mid 20th Century Scandinavian Design

Shop Our Scandinavian Rugs | Shop All Vintage Rugs | Shop All Area Rugs From Scandinavia | Shop Swedish Design Area Rugs | Shop Mid Century Modern Design Area Rugs

What comes to your mind when you think of Scandinavian interior design or just Scandinavian design? If you know anything about it, you would immediately think of furniture, carpets, appliances and home accessories with pure forms and simple, clean lines. Scandinavian design is known for its elegance, minimalism, respect for natural materials, and superb craftsmanship. The key to its global popularity is the fine combination of aesthetics and utility.

Modern Scandinavian design has its roots in traditional crafts, but it owes much to the functionalism of the first half of the 20th century. One particular movement, or rather school, that has had the biggest impact on it is Bauhaus. Bauhaus was an art school in Germany that combined fine arts with craft and was famous for its revolutionary approach to design.

The Bauhaus School and Scandinavian Design by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

The Bauhaus School

What Is Modern Scandinavian Design?

Modern Scandinavian design, also known as Nordic design, is a design movement that emerged in the mid-20th century in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. It is characterized by simplicity, functionality, minimalism, and a connection to nature. Modern Scandinavian design has gained worldwide recognition for its timeless appeal and emphasis on clean lines, craftsmanship, and quality materials.

Some of the more prominent aspects of Modern Scandinavian design include:

  • Minimalism: Scandinavian design embraces minimalism, focusing on simplicity and clean lines. Clutter is minimized, and spaces are kept uncluttered and airy.
  • Functionality: Functionality is a central principle of Scandinavian design. Furniture and objects are designed to be practical, useful, and efficient, often with multi-functional elements to maximize space.
  • Natural materials: Scandinavian design celebrates the use of natural materials, such as wood, leather, wool, and natural fibers. These materials bring warmth, texture, and a connection to nature into the space.
  • Light and neutral color palettes: Light colors, such as white, beige, and light gray, dominate Scandinavian design. These neutral palettes create a sense of brightness and enhance the feeling of spaciousness.
  • Organic forms: Inspired by nature, Scandinavian design incorporates organic forms and shapes. Curves and gentle contours can be seen in furniture and accessories, adding a sense of softness and warmth to the design.
  • Craftsmanship and quality: Scandinavian design places a strong emphasis on craftsmanship and quality. Attention to detail and the use of well-crafted, durable materials are hallmarks of the style.
  • Hygge: Hygge, is a Danish concept that in the broader sense translates to calmness and coziness, is an essential element of Scandinavian design. It emphasizes creating a warm, inviting, and comfortable atmosphere that promotes relaxation and well-being.
  • Light and nature integration: Scandinavian design takes advantage of natural light and seeks to bring nature indoors. Large windows, open spaces, and a connection to the outdoors are common elements in Scandinavian interiors.
  • Sustainable and eco-friendly design: Scandinavian design has a strong focus on sustainability and eco-friendliness. The use of renewable materials, energy-efficient solutions, and a mindful approach to consumption are prioritized.

Modern Scandinavian design has had a significant impact on the global design scene, with its clean aesthetics and functional approach resonating with people around the world. It is widely recognized for its timeless appeal, simplicity, and harmonious blend of form and function.

What is Bauhaus?

Bauhaus refers to a renowned art and design school that operated in Germany from 1919 to 1933.

How many students graduated from the Bauhaus school?

The exact number of students who graduated from the Bauhaus school is difficult to determine with certainty. The Bauhaus was a renowned art and design school in Germany that operated from 1919 to 1933. During its existence, the school went through different locations and had various departments and courses.

The number of students who attended the Bauhaus varied from year to year, and many students enrolled for different durations and programs. It’s estimated that the total number of students who passed through the school during its 14-year existence was around 1,250 to 1,400. It’s important to note that not all of these students graduated, as some may have left before completing their studies.

While the exact graduation figures may be challenging to ascertain, the Bauhaus school remains highly influential, and its impact on modern art, architecture, and design is widely recognized.

Who were some of the most famous people to graduate from the Bauhaus school?

The Bauhaus school produced several notable artists, architects, and designers who went on to have significant influence in their respective fields.

Here are some of the most famous individuals who graduated from the Bauhaus:

  • Walter Gropius: Gropius was the founder and first director of the Bauhaus school. He was an architect and one of the leading figures in the development of modernist architecture. Gropius’ vision for the Bauhaus shaped its principles and curriculum.
  • Marcel Breuer: Breuer was a Hungarian-born architect and furniture designer. He studied and later taught at the Bauhaus, becoming known for his innovative use of tubular steel in furniture design. Breuer’s iconic Wassily Chair is still considered a design classic.
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Mies van der Rohe was a prominent architect and designer. He joined the Bauhaus in its later years and served as its director from 1930 to 1933. Mies van der Rohe is known for his minimalist and “less is more” approach, and he later became one of the pioneers of modernist architecture.
  • Anni Albers: Anni Albers was a textile artist and printmaker who studied at the Bauhaus. She played a significant role in the weaving workshop at the school and later became known for her innovative textile designs. Albers’ work blurred the boundaries between art and craft.
  • Paul Klee: Klee was a Swiss-born painter and educator who taught at the Bauhaus. His unique style combined abstract, cubist, and expressionist elements. Klee’s art bridged the gap between fine art and design, and his teachings had a lasting impact on the Bauhaus.

These are just a few examples of the many influential individuals who studied or taught at the Bauhaus. The school attracted a diverse range of talented artists, architects, and designers, and their work continues to shape and inspire creative fields today.

Who were some of the most famous teachers at the Bauhaus school?

The Bauhaus school had an exceptional roster of influential teachers who played a vital role in shaping its curriculum and artistic direction.

Here are some of the most famous teachers associated with the Bauhaus:

  • Wassily Kandinsky: Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. He taught at the Bauhaus and was one of its most influential instructors. Kandinsky’s abstract art and his theories on the spiritual aspects of art had a profound impact on the Bauhaus philosophy.
  • Paul Klee: As mentioned earlier, Paul Klee was both a student and a teacher at the Bauhaus. His innovative teaching methods and unique approach to color and form influenced generations of artists. Klee’s pedagogical contributions were highly regarded within the Bauhaus community.
  • László Moholy-Nagy: Moholy-Nagy was a Hungarian artist and designer who taught at the Bauhaus. He was known for his experimentation with new materials and technologies, particularly in the realm of photography and film. Moholy-Nagy’s teachings focused on the integration of art, technology, and industry.
  • Josef Albers: Albers was a German-born artist and educator who taught at the Bauhaus and later at Black Mountain College in the United States. His expertise in color theory and his innovative teaching methods left a lasting impact. Albers is best known for his series of paintings and teachings known as “Homage to the Square.”
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: In addition to being a student and director of the Bauhaus, Mies van der Rohe also taught at the school. His emphasis on structural clarity, functionalism, and the use of modern materials had a significant influence on the Bauhaus’s architectural teachings.

These are just a few examples of the renowned teachers associated with the Bauhaus. Their diverse expertise and innovative approaches helped shape the interdisciplinary and avant-garde nature of the school, making it a pivotal institution in the development of modern art, design, and architecture.

How do you define the Bauhaus deign style?

The Bauhaus design style, also known as Bauhaus architecture and design, emerged from the influential Bauhaus school in Germany, which operated from 1919 to 1933. The movement sought to integrate art, craftsmanship, and technology, and its principles had a profound impact on modern art, architecture, and design.

Key characteristics of the Bauhaus design style include:

  • Functionality: Bauhaus emphasized the idea that form should follow function. Designers aimed to create objects and buildings that were practical and served their intended purpose efficiently. Unnecessary ornamentation was avoided in favor of simplicity and utility.
  • Minimalism: Bauhaus embraced clean lines, geometric shapes, and minimal ornamentation. The emphasis was on simplicity and clarity in design, with an aim to remove unnecessary elements and focus on essential forms.
  • Rationality and industrial production: The Bauhaus design style embraced the use of industrial materials and mass production techniques. Designers aimed to create objects that could be efficiently produced, affordable, and accessible to a wider audience.
  • Integration of art and technology: Bauhaus sought to unite fine art, craftsmanship, and technology. The school encouraged collaboration between artists, architects, and designers to explore new materials, techniques, and applications across various disciplines.
  • Experimentation and innovation: Bauhaus encouraged experimentation and innovative approaches to design. Students were exposed to a wide range of disciplines and materials, fostering a spirit of exploration and pushing boundaries.
  • Use of primary colors: The Bauhaus design style often employed bold, primary colors in its visual language. This color palette was seen as harmonious and served to accentuate the geometric forms and structures of the designs.

The Bauhaus design style had a significant impact on the development of modern architecture, industrial design, graphic design, and even interior design. Its emphasis on functionality, simplicity, and the integration of art and technology continues to influence contemporary design practices.

What was the main goal of the Bauhaus movement?

The primary goal of the Bauhaus movement was to integrate craftsmanship with modern industrial techniques and design principles. It sought to create functional and aesthetically pleasing designs that could be mass-produced and made available to the general public. The school emphasized the unity of all arts, combining disciplines such as architecture, painting, sculpture, graphic design, industrial design, and crafts.

What was so special about the curriculum at the Bauhaus school?

The Bauhaus curriculum was experimental and interdisciplinary, encouraging students to explore various artistic mediums and techniques. It emphasized practical training and hands-on experience, with workshops dedicated to different materials and crafts. Prominent artists and designers associated with the Bauhaus include Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, László Moholy-Nagy, Marcel Breuer, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

The long lasting impact of Bauhaus

Despite its relatively short existence, the Bauhaus had a profound and lasting impact on the world of art, design, and architecture. Its principles and aesthetics, characterized by simplicity, functionality, and the use of modern materials, continue to influence contemporary design practices. The Bauhaus is considered a major movement of 20th-century design and remains an important reference point in the history of art and architecture.

When and by whom was the Bauhaus school founded?

The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius, an architect by profession, in 1919 and closed in 1933 after the rise of the Nazis.

The Actual Bauhaus Art School - Nazmiyal Rugs

The Actual Bauhaus Art School

Where was the Bauhaus school was located?

  • Weimar from 1919 to 1925.
  • Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933.

The Bauhaus school flourished under the able leadership of three architect-directors:

  • Walter Gropius (1919 – 1928)
  • Hannes Meyer (1928 – 1930)
  • Ludwig Miles van der Rohe (1930 – 1933)

These three men and their students took their knowledge to Scandinavia and other countries after they were forced to flee Nazi Germany. Over the years, they created a body of work that continues to influence today’s design.

Scandinavian Design Bauhaus Furniture by Nazmiyal

Scandinavian Design Bauhaus Furniture

Bauhaus became the cornerstone of the modern Scandinavian design movement that emerged in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the 1950s. Scandinavian countries, along with Finland and Iceland, were quick to embrace the design philosophy of Bauhaus and make it their own because the love for local materials and functional forms was already embedded in their culture.

Unlike people in other European countries who longed for a luxurious lifestyle, all that the Scandinavians longed for was a comfortable and cozy home to thwart the harsh weather and long, cold and dark winter.

This imbued them with a sense of practicality that matched perfectly with the teaching of Bauhaus. This is evident in the beautiful yet practical design of modern furniture, carpets and other products made in the Scandinavian countries.

Bauhaus Design Furniture and Architecture by Nazmiyal

Bauhaus Design Furniture and Architecture

The three most important features of Scandinavian design that emerged in the mid-20th century are: good design, beauty combined with functionality, and optimum use of available resources. Great emphasis is given on simplicity, symmetry and clarity. Thus, furniture, carpet and home accessories from Scandinavian countries always have a homely coziness about them.

When talking about modern Scandinavian design, it is worth mentioning the beautiful carpets that come out of the region. Scandinavia has a long tradition of making handmade carpets. Swedish rugs from the mid-twentieth century are among the most sought after area rugs today. They’re uniquely sparse and geometric patterns perfectly reflect the designer’s love for simplicity, clarity and functional forms. This is the essence of Bauhaus thinking.

What is Bauhaus interior design?

Bauhaus interior design refers to the design principles and aesthetic approach developed and taught at the Bauhaus school in Germany. It emphasized functional, minimalist, and geometric design while integrating modern industrial materials and techniques. Bauhaus interior design aimed to create harmonious, practical, and visually pleasing spaces that reflected the ideals of the movement.

Some of the main features of the Bauhaus interior design stylistic approach include:

  • Simplicity: Bauhaus designers believed in stripping away unnecessary ornamentation and focusing on the essential elements of design. Clean lines, geometric shapes, and simplicity of form were highly valued.
  • Functionality: The Bauhaus school emphasized the idea that form should follow function. Designers aimed to create furniture and objects that were not only visually appealing but also practical and efficient in their use.
  • Minimalism: Bauhaus interiors often showcased a minimalist aesthetic. Spaces were uncluttered, with a focus on open layouts and the use of minimal furniture and décor.
  • Integration of technology and materials: Bauhaus embraced modern materials, such as glass, steel, and concrete, and explored innovative ways of using them in interior design. These materials were often left exposed, showcasing their industrial beauty.
  • Open floor plans: Bauhaus interiors favored open floor plans that allowed for flexible and adaptable spaces. Walls were often kept to a minimum, creating a sense of openness and spaciousness.
  • Neutral color palettes: Bauhaus interiors typically featured neutral color schemes, including shades of white, black, gray, and earth tones. Bright accent colors were sparingly used.
  • Integration of art and craftsmanship: The Bauhaus movement emphasized the integration of art and craftsmanship. Handcrafted elements and artistic details were often incorporated into furniture and objects, blurring the boundaries between fine art and design.

Bauhaus interior design principles continue to influence contemporary design, particularly in modernist and minimalist styles. Its emphasis on functionality, simplicity, and the use of modern materials has made it a timeless and influential approach to interior design.

A Beginner’s Guide to Art Deco and Bauhaus Design

Click Here To View All Art Deco Carpets at Nazmiyal

Art Deco is an influential style of art that is thought to have originated in Paris in the early 1920’s. The credit for coining the term goes to Le Corbusier, a renowned French architect of the time, who used it in the title of a journal he wrote in 1925, “Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes” (or “International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts” in English).

The Chrysler Building in New York, with its curving and angular lines, is a great example of Art Deco architecture, on Nazmiyal blog.

The Chrysler Building in New York, with its curving and angular lines, is a great example of Art Deco architecture.

Broadly speaking, the term covers all the styles that were developed in various places around the world in the period between the two world wars, such as Art Moderne, Bauhaus and Stijl. All the different styles had one thing in common: they were heavily influenced by the rapid technological advances of the time. This is evident from the geometric lines, influenced by the automobile and other industries, and streamlined curves, influenced by aviation.

The rise of Art Deco and its popularity can be said to be a direct consequence of World War I, which effectively brought an end to the overwrought Victorian age. Before the war, people were more interested in ornate, highly detailed aesthetic styles. The war changed all that. The pace of discoveries and inventions increased dramatically. Both American and European societies grew affluent. The floral motifs and intricate designs of Art Nouveau, the previous artistic movement, gave way to the sleek, bold, curved and geometric lines of Art Deco. Instead of looking to the natural world for inspiration, designers looked to man-made innovations.

Noteworthy artistic movements that comprised Art Deco are Moderne Style, Bauhaus and De Stijl

art deco car and lamp, 1930's, Nazmiyal blog

You can see the art moderne influence of automobile design on everyday objects when comparing the curving lines of both this 1930’s car and lamp.

The Moderne Style was influenced by the streamlined and aerodynamic design of automobiles and airplanes. You can see this in American Art Deco. The style is still as popular as it used to be in those days.

Bauhaus was an art school in Germany that popularized geometric, block style architecture. The school operated from 1919 to 1933, but its teachings continue to influence design today. You can see this in European Art Deco.

De Stilj Style Chair, Nazmiyal blog

De Stilj Style Chair

De Stilj was a Dutch artistic movement that was heavily influenced by cubism. It emphasized the use of geometric lines (vertical and horizontal lines) and the use of primary colors only. You can see this in the Art Deco of the Netherlands and neighboring countries.

Art Deco also had profound influence on the design of rugs and carpets of the time. Many carpet designers ditched the fanciful, lighthearted and intricate patterns of Art Nouveau in favor of bold colors, geometric lines and strong forms.

You may also want to read: Bauhaus Weaving Workshops: History And Its Women 1919-1933 | The Iconic Bauhaus Textile Artist Anni Albers | The Captivating Bauhaus Textile Art of Gunta Stölzl

View our collection of rugs that would easily pair up in any interior or with any furniture that was influenced by the Bauhaus School

Wassily Kandinsky Bauhaus Rug #71589 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Wassily Kandinsky Bauhaus Rug #71589

Scandinavian Shag Rya Rug #71114 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Scandinavian Shag Rya Rug #71114

Scandinavian Margareta Hallek Tapestry #70841 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Scandinavian Margareta Hallek Tapestry #70841

Verner Panton Scandinavian Rug #71492 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Verner Panton Scandinavian Rug #71492

Shag Scandinavian Rya Rug #71445 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Shag Scandinavian Rya Rug #71445

Double Sided Scandinavian Kilim Rug #49947 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Double Sided Scandinavian Kilim Rug #49947

Verner Panton Orange Kurve Scandinavian Textile #47821 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Verner Panton Orange Kurve Scandinavian Textile #47821

Vintage Scandinavian Marianne Richter Rug #71325 by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Vintage Scandinavian Marianne Richter Rug #71325

Paul Klee Artist Rug Scandinavian Nazmiyal

Paul Klee Artist Rug Scandinavian

Asger Oluf Jorn Rug Nazmiyal

Vintage Asger Oluf Jorn Art Rug

Brita Molin Vintage Carpet Nazmiyal

Was At Sea by Brita Molin Vintage Scandinavian Carpet

This design blog about Art Deco influences on the Bauhaus School and Scandinavian Design was published by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs in New York City.

Related News

Interior Designer Lee Ledbetter by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Interior Designer Lee Ledbetter

Lee Ledbetter's superb interior design skills are derived from his pristine and prolific background in...

California Chic Decor Style by Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

California Chic Decor Style and Rugs

In this post we explore the California chic decor style that seems to be the...

Danish Modern Nazmiyal

Danish Modern Design

In this article we talk about what Danish modern design is and the key features...

Shopping Cart