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Learn More About Antique Tapestries
What Is A Tapestry?
A wall hanging tapestry, simply put, is a textile specifically designed and woven to portray an artistic scene with the intent of hanging it on a wall. Antique tapestries, those that were woven over 100 years ago, are highly sought after collectible items with examples displayed prominently in many museums around the world.
While some wall tapestries can date to the biblical era, most of the great examples known today are from the medieval or Renaissance periods of history. Nobility and wealthy patrons commissioned tapestries depicting scenes or images of importance. These weavings served as a large-scale mobile art piece which would have been displayed on the wall of a castle or home and was easily transportable from home to home.
Many of the surviving antique tapestries depict religious and / or historic events. For example, a king might have commissioned one with a scene depicting a great victory in battle. As the king moved to his various palaces or castles, the tapestry could be moved along with him as well.
Another example could be a religious weavings, commissioned by a religious institution and some would only be displayed at the church or cathedral during certain religious events. Other wall tapestries might display images of a family and those would usually depict the family’s coats of arms.
Antique tapestries vary in size, and range from items that would cover a single wall of a small room to major works that are massive in size. Some antique wall hanging tapestry rugs are actually sets or a series of works on a common theme.
Weavers used the natural materials available at the time. Wool, cotton, silk and linen threads were dyed to the desired colors before weaving. Some tapestries also included gold and silver thread accents. Sadly enough, in the past, there were owners who destroyed some of these tapestries to recover the precious metals leaving fewer examples of this breathtaking form of the art.
A tapestry is largely thought of as a European form of textile art. Most of the major countries of Europe did produce these pieces with a highly developed art forms evident in Germany, Spain, Belgium, France and more. Tapestry weavers continue to produce works of textile art till this very day so not every example is an antique.
Antique Tapestries are perhaps the most venerable and highly prized medium of textile art. They have been woven almost from the beginning of weaving itself, and already in ancient times, this technique was adapted to pictorial compositions as well as ornamental designs. Antique Tapestries or ‘Woven paintings’ of this kind were known to the court arts of Egypt, the ancient Near East, and the Greeks and Romans as well. It was this ancient tradition that was passed down through the Middle Ages into the Renaissance and Baroque periods in Europe, where pictorial tapestry rugs became a medium of painting in its own right utilizing designs by all the great ‘Old Masters’. Nazmiyal is proud to offer a distinguished collection of such European antique tapestries whose historic importance or value is equal to their beauty and elegance as great works of art.
What is a tapestry used for?
A tapestry is a woven fabric that was created with the intent to hang on the wall as a work of textile art. While in ancient times, the Romans as well as the Greeks created tapestries as artworks for the wall, some ancient cultures, like the ancient Egyptian and Incas also wove tapestries with the intent of being used as burial shrouds.
What is the oldest known tapestry?
The earliest known tapestry was woven in linen and dates back to 1483 and 1411 BCE Egypt found When excavating the the tomb of Thutmose IV, three woven linen tapestry fragments were discovered in relatively good condition due the dry deserts climate in Egypt. Two tapestry fragments depict Egyptian pharaohs while the third fragment features hieroglyphs.
The Art of the Tapestry
The art of tapestry weaving is an exceptional art different than any other weaving art. Based on a design cartoon, the background, pattern, and every element is woven over a warp with weft threads. These threads conceal the entire warp when the tapestry is finished, and the warp only sometimes can be seen as parallel, vertical texture in the finished product.
Evolution of Tapestry Weaving
Early tapestries, from the Middle Ages, to the Gobelin tapestries of the 17th century, all the way up until the late 19th century, were made with thick warps and corresponding thick weft threads. These tapestries were often made heavy for a functional purpose: to be hung on chilly stone walls to keep out drafts and keep warmth inside. However, in the 20th century, silk started gaining more popularity, as opposed to other tapestry materials like wool. These thin tapestries are extremely fine and can have as many as 60 warp threads per inch.
The first known tapestry weaving was done in linen by the ancient Egyptians, as far back as 1483 BCE. However, it is impossible to identify for sure either when or where the first tapestries were made, as physical evidence is extremely rare and even then, worn and fragmented. There is scattered documentation of tapestry weaving throughout the very early years of history. Some of this includes in literature. The Odyssey describes a tapestry woven by Penelope that unraveled each night she waited for Odysseus. The Metamorphoses discuss tapestry looms used by Minerva and Arachne. These ancient literary descriptions give us some clue into what tapestry weaving may have been like during those times.
Tapestry Weaving Technique
There are many different ways a tapestry can be woven. The tapestry may be woven on either a vertical or horizontal loom. The vertical looms, naturally, had bars at the top and the bottom, with the warp threads held vertically between these bars. This vertical loom is also referred to as a “high warp” loom. The horizontal looms, conversely, has warp threads stretched horizontally between two table-height poles. These poles are connected to a treadle, which is a contraption that the weaver can step on to depress either the odd-numbered or even-numbered warps, allowing the bobbin to easily pull the weft threads through. The horizontal loom is also referred to as a “low-warp” loom.
Interesting to note is that with both types of looms, the weaver works from the back of the tapestry. This means that with the vertical loom, the weaver can simply walk to the other side of the loom to look at the front, but with the horizontal loom, the weaver must pick up the loom and turn it over to be able to see the front of the tapestry. The horizontal loom is more commonly used, although the iconic Gobelin manufactory worked with vertical looms. Both types of loom allow for several weavers to work on them at once.
Another element of tapestry weaving is the cartoon. The cartoon is a colored drawing done by a painter on a canvas the actual size that the tapestry would be. This was a reference for how the tapestry should look. Cartoons usually weren’t just used once, but many times and often by different weavers. When using a vertical loom, the cartoon is hung either beside or behind the weaver. Conversely, when a horizontal loom is being used, the cartoon is simply placed under the warp threads so it is easy for the weaver to follow.
As you can see, tapestry weaving has been around for a very long time, perhaps even longer than we are aware of. It is an intricate technique that requires plenty of talent and patience, but creates a spectacular finished product to marvel at.
Introduction to the world of antique tapestry rugs
Antique tapestry rugs are highly treasured pieces of textile art that have been created since the beginning of the art of weaving. They are regarded as a prestige item to own and to use in the adornment of any room. The richness of the designs leads one to uncover new details every time they are viewed.
Antique tapestries can be considered a mobile piece of art that are easily transferred from one home to another. Some of the better known pieces were created by the French. One such example is the Bayeux tapestry that was created in the 11th century and that shows scenes of the Norman conquest of England. Also, during the 13th and 14th century, the church had created wall hanging textiles that depicted biblical events to illiterate the churchgoers.
Some of the oldest tapestries were woven textile reproductions of the works of prominent artists (some may even date back to biblical times).
What are antique tapestry rugs?
Antique tapestry rugs are examples of textile art that were created at least 100 years ago.
What is considered to be the golden age of tapestries?
The best known tapestries are associated with the Renaissance and later Medieval periods. In those times, wealthy people and royalty commissioned artists to capture events and scenes of religious and biblical topics that were important to them.
Who might have originally commissioned old tapestries?
A King might commission a tapestry to show the scenes of a battle he may have won and would then display the piece in his castle. Many religious institutions may have commissioned antique tapestry rugs to be hung in a cathedral or church during specific religious events. In those times, a wealthy family may have also commission an antique tapestry to depict the family’s coat of arms.
What sizes are typical tapestries?
Tapestries vary in the size and don’t have a “standard” or “typical size“. Some examples can be large enough to cover just a small wall, while others may be massive works of art. Other tapestries may consist of a series of many pieces all based on a common theme.
What materials were used to weave tapestries?
Tapestry rugs were woven using many different materials. Cotton, wool, linen and silk threads were the natural materials available to weavers who created their pieces. They would dye threads of these fabrics prior to weaving them. In addition, some weavers included accents of silver and / or gold threads in their designs. Unfortunately, few of these gold and silver accented tapestries remain today because some were destroyed to recover the precious metal threads.
Do tapestry rugs have specific designs and patterns?
Tapestry rugs will depict a varied and wide range of designs and patterns. Some examples will feature artistic scenes that range from battles in action, hunting scenes, landscapes, biblical scenes and also various aspects of daily life. Others may depict pastoral and romantic scenes while others may feature events and people of historical significance.
Are tapestry rugs considered works of art?
Yes. For the most part, Tapestry rugs are considered collectors works of art. Many pieces are displayed in and part of museums determinant collections.
Do people use tapestry rugs in their homes?
Many people will buy tapestry rugs to used as decorative pieces for their homes. Many can bee seen in old castles of European royalty. More often than not, they are mounted on walls as artwork, and may even be used as upholstery.
Can antique tapestry rugs be used on the floor?
Usually, antique tapestries are not created to be spread on the floor to be walked on. That said, we have seen people use them as area rugs or floor coverings and it is not as uncommon as one would think.
What is the oldest tapestry in the world?
Woven in Sweden during the Viking age, the oldest tapestry in the world is the Overhogdal tapestry. This piece dates to about the 800 – 1100 AD. It is actually not one but a series of antique textiles / fragments that can be seen in a room that was designed especially for them in Jamtli. Other pieces can be seen in the Jamtland regional museum and Harjedalen in Ostersund, Sweden.
Where were most antique tapestry rugs made?
The most recognizable would probably be the antique Flemish tapestries that were woven in Belgium. That said, others were woven in many different places in the world. Many beautiful and iconic tapestry rugs were woven in countries such as France, Italy and China among others.
What are the unicorn tapestries?
The unicorn tapestries (also refereed to as the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries) are a series of seven pieces that were woven in metallic threads, silk and wool between the years 1495 and 1505. Perhaps some of the most recognizable antique tapestries in the world, they have been sparking much debate among scholars and art historians. Questions such as the identity of artists who designed them, the particular order in which they were meant to be hung and even the meaning behind the visual images remain. While highly debated, in 1942, James J. Rorimer suggested that the unicorn tapestries may have been commissioned to celebrate the 6 December 1491 marriage of Anne of Brittany’s marriage to the King of France – Louis XII.
Trend Alert: Hanging Wall Tapestries As Art
Newsflash — tapestries are trending! It’s been some 40 years since tapestries have been a trending item. Now, they’re reaching new horizons. This is a true comeback story of an old and sometimes under-appreciated art form that’s receiving a major makeover and a huge popularity boost.
Trendsetters in Paris welcomed the tapestry craze in 2013 by hosting an important and forward-thinking exhibition focusing on modern examples with an urban flavor. The Pompidou Center’s “Decorum” collection was the largest textile exhibit ever displayed at the Musee d’Art Moderne.
It included everything from Picasso carpets to modern tapestries depicting plush sneakers, a furry bathrobe and a supersized Welsh corgi. Smaller galleries in Germany, Italy and China are currently enjoying this “Neo Craft” movement that has brought new artists into the spotlight.
Around the world, traditional neoclassical and